Water purification is the process of purifying contaminated water to make it safe for human consumption. Water can be collected from a number of sources to be purified, such as natural water sources and collections of rainwater. There are a number of processes that must take place in order to ensure the water is safe to drink.
Many people are aware that boiling water for a short period of time is often a perfectly acceptable way of purifying it. This process kills the bacteria and microorganisms that are in the water, and can be drunk once cooled down. This process very effective in a number of situations but is often not the ideal solution. A lot of water sources produce water that is contaminated beyond the point that it can be purified simply by boiling it. In these circumstances, a number of other options must be considered.
The water is collected from various sources and can be stored in a number of different ways. One method is to create a reservoir that is specifically designed to hold water before it goes through the purification process. This can be an ideal solution because not only does this allow the water to be purified naturally to an extent, it is useful in the event of a drought or similar situation. Before the water can be purified, large debris must be removed. The purification process removes chemical and biological contamination, but it is useful to filter out larger items before the process takes place.
The first step of the purifying process is to clarify the water. This is the process of removing any chemicals or impurities that colour the water. The process is called flocculation, and it leaves the water clear and free of larger particles. The water must then be filtered. There are a number of ways to do this, such as by using man-made filters or by using filters that are found in nature. Man-made filters are extremely thin and remove almost al unwanted particles from the water. This is a very efficient way of purifying water. Slow-sand filtration is a method of filtering water using naturally occurring filters of sand. This is a cost-effective method, but it may not completely purify the water.
There are a number of methods available for water purification, and it is essential that they are fast and efficient to ensure there is a constant supply of clean drinking water for the public.